

On the other hand, one has to be very careful with simulation models because it is also easy to misuse simulation. On the other hand, one has to be very careful with simulation models because it is also easy to misuse simulation. First, before using the model it must be properly validated. While validation is necessary with any model, it is especially important with simulation. Second, the analyst must be familiar with how to use a simulation model correctly, including things such as replication, run length, warmup etc; a detailed explanation of these concepts is beyond the scope of this chapter but the interested reader should refer to a good text on simulation. Third, the analyst must be familiar with various statistical techniques in order to analyze simulation output in a meaningful fashion. Fourth, constructing a complex simulation model on a computer can often be a challenging and relatively time consuming task, although simulation software has developed to the point where this is becoming easier by the day.Fassilia United States. Alabama
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Simulation models are analyzed by running the software over some length of time that represents a suitable period when t Simulation models are analyzed by running the software over some length of time that represents a suitable period when the original system is operating under steady state. The inputs to such models are the decision variables that are under the control of the decisionmaker. These are treated as parameters and the simulation is run for various combinations of values for these parameters. At the end of a run statistics are gathered on various measures of performance and these are then analyzed using standard techniques. The decisionmaker then selects the combination of values for the decision variables that yields the most desirable performance. Simulation models are extremely powerful and have one highly desirable feature they can be used to model very complex systems without the need to make too many simplifying assumptions and without the need to sacrifice detail.Fassilia United States. Alabama
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is typically identified with mathematical analysis, the use of an innovative model and problemsolving procedure such as is typically identified with mathematical analysis, the use of an innovative model and problemsolving procedure such as the one just described is an entirely legitimate way to conduct an O. Computer Simulation Models With the growth in computational power these models have become extremely popular over the last ten to fifteen years. A simulation model is one where the system is abstracted into a computer program. While the specific computer language used is not a defining characteristic, a number of languages and software systems have been developed solely for the purpose of building computer simulation models; a survey of the most popular systems may be found in OR MS Today October 1997, pp. Typically, such software has syntax as well as builtin constructs that allow for easy model development. Very often they also have provisions for graphics and animation that can help one visualize the system being simulated.Fassilia United States. Alabama
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An army of ants was then released at the anthill and the paths that they chose to get to the mounds of sugar were then o An army of ants was then released at the anthill and the paths that they chose to get to the mounds of sugar were then observed. After the model attained a steady state, it was found that the ants by virtue of their own tendencies had found the most efficient paths to their destinations. One could even conduct some postoptimality analysis. For instance, various transportation capacities along each link could be analyzed by proportionately varying the width of the link, and a scenario where certain roads were unusable could be analyzed by simply removing the corresponding links to see what the ants would then do. This illustrates an analogic model. More importantly, it also illustrates that while O.Fassilia United States. Alabama
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Perhaps the most famous example of an analogic model was the ANTIAC model the acronym stood for antia utomatic c omput Perhaps the most famous example of an analogic model was the ANTIAC model the acronym stood for antia utomatic c omputation which demonstrated that one could conduct a valid operations research analysis without even resorting to the use of a computer. In this problem the objective was to find the best way to distribute supplies at a military depot to various demand points. Such a problem can be solved efficiently by using techniques from network flow analysis. However the actual procedure that was used took a different approach. An anthill on a raised platform was chosen as an analog for the depot and little mounds of sugar on their own platforms were chosen to represent each demand point. The network of roads connecting the various nodes was constructed using bits of string with the length of each being proportional to the actual distance and the width to the capacity along that link.Fassilia United States. Alabama
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