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is typically identified with mathematical analysis, the use of an innovative model and problem-solving procedure such as


is typically identified with mathematical analysis, the use of an innovative model and problem-solving procedure such as
is typically identified with mathematical analysis, the use of an innovative model and problem-solving procedure such as the one just described is an entirely legitimate way to conduct an O.
Computer Simulation Models With the growth in computational power these models have become extremely popular over the last ten to fifteen years.
A simulation model is one where the system is abstracted into a computer program.
While the specific computer language used is not a defining characteristic, a number of languages and software systems have been developed solely for the purpose of building computer simulation models; a survey of the most popular systems may be found in OR MS Today October 1997, pp.
Typically, such software has syntax as well as built-in constructs that allow for easy model development.
Very often they also have provisions for graphics and animation that can help one visualize the system being simulated.Fassilia
United States. Alabama



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is typically identified with mathematical analysis, the use of an innovative model and problem-solving procedure such as

An army of ants was then released at the anthill and the paths that they chose to get to the mounds of sugar were then o
An army of ants was then released at the anthill and the paths that they chose to get to the mounds of sugar were then observed.
After the model attained a steady state, it was found that the ants by virtue of their own tendencies had found the most efficient paths to their destinations.
One could even conduct some postoptimality analysis.
For instance, various transportation capacities along each link could be analyzed by proportionately varying the width of the link, and a scenario where certain roads were unusable could be analyzed by simply removing the corresponding links to see what the ants would then do.
This illustrates an analogic model.
More importantly, it also illustrates that while O.Fassilia
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is typically identified with mathematical analysis, the use of an innovative model and problem-solving procedure such as

Perhaps the most famous example of an analogic model was the ANTIAC model the acronym stood for anti-a utomatic- c omput
Perhaps the most famous example of an analogic model was the ANTIAC model the acronym stood for anti-a utomatic- c omputation which demonstrated that one could conduct a valid operations research analysis without even resorting to the use of a computer.
In this problem the objective was to find the best way to distribute supplies at a military depot to various demand points.
Such a problem can be solved efficiently by using techniques from network flow analysis.
However the actual procedure that was used took a different approach.
An anthill on a raised platform was chosen as an analog for the depot and little mounds of sugar on their own platforms were chosen to represent each demand point.
The network of roads connecting the various nodes was constructed using bits of string with the length of each being proportional to the actual distance and the width to the capacity along that link.Fassilia
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Having a clear problem definition allows one to better determine the crucial aspects of a system that must be selected f
Having a clear problem definition allows one to better determine the crucial aspects of a system that must be selected for representation by the model, and the ultimate intent is to arrive at a model that captures all the key elements of the system while remaining simple enough to analyze.
Models may be broadly classified into four categories .
Physical Models These are actual, scaled down versions of the original.
Examples include a globe, a scale-model car or a model of a flow line made with elements from a toy construction set.
In general, such models are not very common in operations research, mainly because getting accurate representations of complex systems through physical models is often impossible.
Analogic Models These are models that are a step down from the first category in that they are physical models as well, but use a physical analog to describe the system, as opposed to an exact scaled-down version.Fassilia
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While the very process of constructing such a detailed model can often aid immeasurably in better understanding the syst
While the very process of constructing such a detailed model can often aid immeasurably in better understanding the system, the model may well be useless from an analytical perspective since its construction may be extremely time-consuming and its complexity precludes any meaningful analysis.
At the other extreme, one could build a less comprehensive model with a lot of simplifying assumptions so that it can be analyzed easily.
However, the danger here is that the model may be so lacking in accuracy that extrapolating results from the analysis back to the original system could cause serious errors.
Clearly, one must draw a line somewhere in the middle where the model is a sufficiently accurate representation of the original system, yet remains tractable.
Knowing where to draw such a line is precisely what determines a good modeler, and this is something that can only come with experience.
In the formal definition of a model that was given above, the key word is selective.Fassilia
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