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, of setting boundaries for the specific actions that the decision-maker may take.


, of setting boundaries for the specific actions that the decision-maker may take.
, of setting boundaries for the specific actions that the decision-maker may take.
As an example, in a production environment, the availability of resources may set limits on what levels of production can be achieved.
This is one activity where the multifunctional team focus of O.
is extremely useful since constraints generated by one functional area are often not obvious to people in others.
In general, it is a good idea to start with a long list of all possible constraints and then narrow this down to the ones that clearly have an effect on the courses of action that can be selected.
The aim is to be comprehensive yet parsimonious when specifying constraints.Fassilia
United States. Alabama



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, of setting boundaries for the specific actions that the decision-maker may take.

These must further be classified into alternative courses of action that are under the control of the decision maker and
These must further be classified into alternative courses of action that are under the control of the decision maker and uncontrollable factors over which he or she has no control.
For example, in a production environment, the planned production rates can be controlled but the actual market demand may be unpredictable although it may be possible to scientifically forecast these with reasonable accuracy .
The idea here is to form a comprehensive list of all the alternative actions that can be taken by the decision maker and that will then have an effect on the stated objective.
Eventually, the O.
approach will search for the particular course of action that optimizes the objective.
The third and final component of problem definition is a specification of the constraints on the courses of action, i.Fassilia
United States. Alabama



day: 19.09.2018
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, of setting boundaries for the specific actions that the decision-maker may take.

Along with a specification of the objective it is also important to define its scope, i.
Along with a specification of the objective it is also important to define its scope, i.
, to establish limits for the analysis to follow.
While a complete system level solution is always desirable, this may often be unrealistic when the system is very large or complex and in many cases one must then focus on a portion of the system that can be effectively isolated and analyzed.
In such instances it is important to keep in mind that the scope of the solutions derived will also be bounded.
Some examples of appropriate objectives might be 1 to maximize profits over the next quarter from the sales of our products, 2 to minimize the average downtime at workcenter X, 3 to minimize total production costs at Plant Y, or 4 to minimize the average number of late shipments per month to customers.
The second component of problem definition is a specification of factors that will affect the objective.Fassilia
United States. Alabama



day: 19.09.2018
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Of course, industrial engineers work in all of these areas.
Of course, industrial engineers work in all of these areas.
In addition, the team might also have shopfloor personnel such as a foreman or a shift supervisor and would probably be led by a mid-level manager who has relationships with several of the functional areas listed above.
At the end of the orientation phase, the team might decide that its specific objective is to maximize profits from its two products over the next month.
It may also specify additional things that are desirable, such as some minimum inventory levels for the two products at the beginning of the next month, stable workforce levels, or some desired level of machine utilization.
A clear definition of the problem has three broad components to it.
The first is the statement of an unambiguous objective.Fassilia
United States. Alabama



day: 19.09.2018
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This phase also involves a study of documents and literature relevant to the problem in order to determine if others hav
This phase also involves a study of documents and literature relevant to the problem in order to determine if others have encountered the same or similar problem in the past, and if so, to determine and evaluate what was done to address the problem.
This is a point that often tends to be ignored, but in order to get a timely solution it is critical that one does not reinvent the wheel.
studies, one actually adapts a solution procedure that has already been tried and tested, as opposed to developing a completely new one.
The aim of the orientation phase is to obtain a clear understanding of the problem and its relationship to different operational aspects of the system, and to arrive at a consensus on what should be the primary focus of the project.
In addition, the team should also have an appreciation for what if anything has been done elsewhere to solve the same or similar problem.
In our hypothetical production planning example, the project team might comprise members from engineering to provide information about the process and technology used for production , production planning to provide information on machining times, labor, inventory and other resources , sales and marketing to provide input on demand for the products , accounting to provide information on costs and revenues , and information systems to provide computerized data .Fassilia
United States. Alabama



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